“Fast Reroute Usig Segment Routing for Smart Grids”
Master’s thesis, Mestrado em Engenharia Informática, Departamento de Informática, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Oct. 2016
Abstract: With the increase of power generation from renewable sources and with a growing energy demand, the traditional communication network underpinning the actual electric power grid needs an overhaul. As a response, the Smart Grid is a new generation of electric grids that aims to fulﬁll this goal. Smart Grids demand a set of properties that range from high availability to scalability and security. Therefore, the communication infrastructure plays an important role. Current Internet Protocol-based and Multiprotocol Layer Switching (MPLS) technologies have been suggested capable in achieving those needs. However, IP networks have problems to offer trafﬁc engineering solutions and MPLS faces scalability problems due to the use of complex protocols such as RSVP-TE. A new network paradigm, Software-Deﬁned Networks (SDN), is revolutionizing the way computer networks are built and operated, and is leading to the “softwarization” of networking. Showing promise to solve some of the above problems. However, smart grid operators may be reluctant to move all their network elements to SDN any time soon. Fortunately, Segment routing, recently proposed by the IETF, allows SDN to be used in the context of MPLS networks. The data plane of Segment Routing is similar to MPLS as it uses segments that behave as MPLS labels and is managed in switches using similar actions. In this thesis we present algorithms for fast reroute in SR networks. We propose two solutions: Fast Segment Drop (FSD) that aims to minimize packet overhead and segment list size; and Congestion Avoidance Segment (CAS), a solution that provides trafﬁc engineering by minimizing the maximum link load. The results indeed show that by using CAS reduces network congestion when compared with other algorithms. FSD provides higher coverage using just one segment thus reducing overhead.
Research line(s): Fault and Intrusion Tolerance in Open Distributed Systems (FIT)